• A Harvard Medical School Study of 1,623 heart attack survivors found that when subjects became angry during emotional conflicts, their risk of subsequent heart attacks was more than double that of those that remained calm.
M. Mittleman et al. Circulation. 1995; 92(7)

• Men who complain of high anxiety are up to six times more likely than calmer men to suffer sudden cardiac death.
I. Kawachi et al. Circulation. 1994; 89(5).

• A 20-year study of over 1,700 older men conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health found that worry about social conditions, health and personal finances all significantly increased the risk of coronary heart disease.
L. Kubzansky et al. Circulation. 1997; 95(4)

• Over one-half of heart disease cases are not explained by the standard risk factors – such as high cholesterol, smoking or sedentary lifestyle.
R. Rosenman. Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1993; 28(1)

• An international study of 2,829 people between the ages of 55 and 85 found that individuals who reported the highest levels of personal ”mastery ” – feelings of control over life events – had a nearly 60%lower risk of death compared with those who felt relatively helpless in the face of life ‘s challenges.
B. Penninx et al. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146(6)

• According to a Mayo Clinic study of individuals with heart disease,psychological stress was the strongest predictor of future cardiac events,such as cardiac death, cardiac arrest and heart attacks.
T. Allison et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995; 70(8)

• Three 10-year studies concluded that emotional stress was more predictive of death from cancer and cardiovascular disease than smoking;people who were unable to effectively manage their stress had a 40% higher death rate than non-stressed individuals.
H. Eysenck. Br J Med Psychol. 1988; 61(Pt 1)

• A recent study of heart attack survivors showed that patients’ emotional state and relationships in the period after myocardial infarction are as important as the disease severity in determining their prognosis.
S. Thomas et al. Am J Crit Care. 1997; 6(2)

• In a study of 5,716 middle-aged people,those with the highest self-regulation abilities were over 50 times more likely to be alive and without chronic disease 15 years later than those with the lowest self-regulation scores.
R. Grossarth-Maticek & H. Eysenck. Person Individ Diff. 1995; 19(6)